NLCD Percent Developed Imperviousness, New York, 2011

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Identification_Information

Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 20141010
Title: NLCD Percent Developed Imperviousness, New York, 2011
Edition: 2011 Edition, amended 2014
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: National Land Cover Database
Issue_Identification: 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Sioux Falls, SD
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: References: (1) Jin, S., Yang, L., Danielson, P., Homer, C., Fry, J., and Xian, G. 2013. A comprehensive change detection method for updating the National Land Cover Database to circa 2011. Remote Sensing of Environment, 132: 159 – 175. (2) Xian, G., Homer, C., Dewitz, J., Fry, J., Hossain, N., and Wickham, J. 2011. The change of impervious surface area between 2001 and 2006 in the conterminous United States. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 77(8): 758-762. (3) Coulston, J. W., Moisen, G. G., Wilson, B. T., Finco, M. V., Cohen, W. B., and Brewer, C. K. 2012. Modeling percent tree canopy cover: a pilot study. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 78(7): 715-727. The USGS acknowledges the support of USGS and contractor NLCD 2011 Land Cover Mapping Teams in development of data for this map.
Online_Linkage: https://cugir.library.cornell.edu/catalog/cugir-009005
Online_Linkage: http://www.mrlc.gov
Description:
Abstract: The National Land Cover Database products are created through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture -Forest Service (USDA-FS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The success of NLCD over nearly two decades is credited to the continuing collaborative spirit of the agencies that make up the MRLC. NLCD 2011 is the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution land cover database for the Nation. The data in NLCD 2011 are completely integrated with NLCD 2001 (2011 Edition, amended 2014) and NLCD 2006 (2011 Edition, amended 2014). For NLCD 2011, there are 5 primary data products: 1) NLCD 2011 Land Cover; 2) NLCD 2006/2011 Land Cover Change Pixels labeled with the 2011 land cover class; 3) NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness; 4) NLCD 2006/2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness Change Pixels; and 5) NLCD 2011 Tree Canopy Cover provided by an MRLC partner - the USDA Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center. In addition, ancillary metadata includes the NLCD 2011 Path/Row Index shapefile showing the footprint of Landsat scenes and change analysis pairs used to derive 2006/2011 spectral change. All Landsat scene acquisition dates are included in the shapefile's attribute table. As part of the NLCD 2011 project, NLCD 2001 and 2006 land cover and impervious data products have been revised and reissued (2011 Edition, amended 2014) to provide full compatibility with the new NLCD 2011 products. The 2014 amended version corrects for the over-elimination of small areas of the four developed classes. NLCD Tree Canopy Cover was created using MRLC mapping zones from NLCD 2001 (see Tree Canopy Cover metadata for additional detail). All other NLCD 2011 products were created on a path/row basis and mosaicked to create a seamless national product. Questions about the NLCD 2011 products can be directed to the NLCD 2011 land cover mapping team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.
Purpose: The goal of this project is to provide the Nation with complete, current and consistent public domain information on its land use and land cover.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2011
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Every 5 years
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.035689
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.516534
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.847801
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.086438
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Land cover
Theme_Keyword: Land use
Theme_Keyword: Urban imperviousness
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Category
Theme_Keyword: ImageryBaseMapEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: structure
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CUGIR Category
Theme_Keyword: landcover
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: structure
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: New York
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Customer Services Representative
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: USGS EROS
Address: 47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
State_or_Province: SD
Postal_Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 605/594-6151
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 605/594-6589
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: custserv@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800 - 1600 CT, M - F (-6h CST/-5h CDT GMT)
Contact_Instructions: The USGS point of contact is for questions relating to the data display and download from this web site. For questions regarding data content and quality, refer to: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp or email: mrlc@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: https://cugir-data.s3.amazonaws.com/00/90/05/preview.png
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: preview of the dataset
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: PNG
Data_Set_Credit: U.S. Geological Survey
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: None
Security_Classification: Unclassified
Security_Handling_Description: N/A
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Microsoft Windows 7 Version 6.1 (Build 7601: Service Pack 1); ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3.1.4000 (Service Pack 2)

Data_Quality_Information

Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report: A formal accuracy assessment has not been conducted for NLCD 2011 Land Cover, 2006-2011 Land Cover Change, Impervious or 2006-2011 Impervious Change products. For Canopy attribute accuracy, refer to Canopy metadata.
Quantitative_Attribute_Accuracy_Assessment:
Attribute_Accuracy_Value: Unknown
Attribute_Accuracy_Explanation: This document and the described land cover map are considered "provisional" until a formal accuracy assessment is completed. The U.S. Geological Survey can make no guarantee as to the accuracy or completeness of this information, and it is provided with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be correct or complete. Conclusions drawn from this information are the responsibility of the user.
Logical_Consistency_Report: The NLCD 2011 final seamless products include: 1) NLCD 2011 Land Cover; 2) NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness; 3) NLCD 2006/2011 Change Pixels labeled with the 2011 land cover class; 4) NLCD 2006/2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness Change and 5) NLCD 2011 Tree Canopy Cover.
Completeness_Report: This NLCD product is the version dated October 10, 2014.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: N/A
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: N/A
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Landsat image selection and preprocessing. For NLCD 2011 change analysis, two, two-date pairs of Landsat scenes were selected for each path/row to represent ground conditions in circa 2006 and 2011. One additional circa 2011 scene was selected to enhance modeling results for land cover labeling. In selecting the 5 scenes, the temporal range of the imagery was restricted to reduce the impact of seasonal and phenological variation. A pre-processing step was performed to convert the digital number to top of atmosphere reflectance using procedures similar to those established for the NLCD 2001 mapping effort (Homer et al., 2004). Reflectance derivatives, including a tasseled-cap transformation and a 3-ratio index, were generated for each scene to use in the modeling process as independent variables. Where present, clouds and cloud shadows were digitized and masked. NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness and Percent Developed Imperviousness Change Analysis. Because the four NLCD developed classes are derived from a percent imperviousness mapping product, an overview of steps required to update the NLCD 2001 imperviousness to reflect urban growth captured in 2006 era Landsat imagery is provided here (Xian et al., 2010). These same procedures were employed to produce NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness and 2006-2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness Change. First, 2009 nighttime lights imagery from the NOAA Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) was imposed on the NLCD 2006 impervious surface product to exclude low density imperviousness outside urban and suburban centers so that only imperviousness in urban core areas would be used in the training dataset. Two training datasets, one having a relatively larger urban extent and one having a smaller extent, were produced through imposing two different thresholds on city light imagery. Second, each of the two training datasets combined with 2006 Landsat imagery was separately applied using a regression tree (RT) algorithm to build up RT models. Two sets of RT models were then used to estimate percent imperviousness and to produce two 2006 synthetic impervious surfaces. Similarly, the same two training datasets were used with 2011 Landsat imagery to create two sets of RT models that produce two 2011 synthetic impervious surfaces. Third, the 2006 and 2011 synthetic impervious surface pairs were compared using both 2006 impervious surface products to retain 2006 impervious surface area (ISA) in the unchanged areas. The 2009 DMSP nighttime lights imagery was then employed to ensure that non-imperviousness areas were not included and that new impervious surfaces emerged in the city light extent. After this step, two 2011 intermediate impervious surfaces were produced. Finally, the two intermediate products and 2006 imperviousness were compared to remove false estimates in non-urban areas and generate a 2011 impervious surface estimate. Imperviousness threshold values used to derive the NLCD developed classes are: (Class 21) developed open space (imperviousness < 20%), (Class 22) low-intensity developed (imperviousness from 20 - 49%), (Class 23) medium-intensity developed (imperviousness from 50 -79%), and (Class 24) high-intensity developed (imperviousness > 79%). To improve NLCD imperviousness the 2011 project included a process to reduce omission and commission error in NLCD 2001, 2006, and 2011 products. This activity was completed for urban areas in most of the eastern ½ of the conterminous United States. High resolution (one-meter ground sample distance) National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP – http://fsa.usda.gov/FSA/) imagery was used to verify imperviousness. Using hand-edits imperviousness was removed from areas incorrectly identified as developed and added to areas where developed land cover was missed. A modeling process was implemented to add missed imperviousness changes to the correct era and to fill areas where developed was removed with an appropriate non-developed land cover class. These improvements were incorporated with the derived developed classes in all areas of imperviousness and land cover versions released with NLCD 2011 editions. Revised products, NLCD 2001 and NLCD 2006 Impervious (2011 Editions) and NLCD 2001-2006 Impervious Change Pixels (2011 Edition) are included as part of the NLCD 2011 product release. Land Cover Change Analysis. For the NLCD 2011 Land Cover Update, a variation of the Multi-Index Integrated Change Analysis (MIICA) used in NLCD 2006 spectral change analysis was refined to capture land cover disturbance and potential land cover change patterns for updating the National Land Cover Database 2011 (Jin et al. 2013). Four indices were integrated into one model to more accurately detect true spectral changes between two time periods. Within the model, normalized burn ratio (NBR), change vector (CV, Xian et al., 2009), relative change vector (RCV), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are calculated separately for the early date (circa 2006) and late date (circa 2011) scenes. The four pairs of indices for the two dates are differenced and then evaluated in a final model conditional statement that categorizes each pixel as either biomass increase, biomass decrease, or no change. For NLCD 2011, two image pairs of circa 2006 and circa 2011, ideally one leaf-on pair and one leaf-off pair are used interactively in each path/row. The integrated change result is clumped and sieved to produce a refined change/no-change mask used to identify potential change pixels that are then labeled with the NLCD 2011 class. NLCD 2011 Land Cover Classification. Land cover mapping protocols used during NLCD 2011 processing are similar to those used to label the NLCD 2001 product (Homer et al., 2004), but applied on a path/row basis instead of multiple path/row MRLC zones (Xian et al., 2009). Classification was achieved using decision tree modeling that employed a combination of Landsat imagery, reflectance derivatives, and ancillary data (independent variables) with training data points (dependent variable) collected from a refined version of the NLCD 2006 land cover product. Training points were randomly sampled and limited to those areas that were determined to be unchanged between 2006 and 2011 during the MIICA spectral change analysis process. Training data for pixels changed to developed land cover were not collected since the four classes in urban and sub-urban areas were mapped separately using a regression tree modeling method (described in the Imperviousness Change Analysis process steps above). Post classification modeling and hand-editing were used to further refine the decision tree output. Following classification, the 2011 land cover was masked with the change/no-change result (captured during the MIICA change analysis modeling) to extract a label for spectrally changed pixels. Labeled change pixels were then compared to the NLCD 2006 land cover base to exclude those pixels identified as spectral change, but classified with the same label as the corresponding 2006 pixel. NLCD 2011 percent developed impervious pixels, identified as changed, were extracted to NLCD developed class codes using NLCD 2006 legend thresholds for developed classes and added to the change pixel map. This intermediate change pixel product was generalized using the NLCD Smart Eliminate tool with the following minimum mapping units (mmu) applied: 1 acre (approximately 5 ETM+ 30 m pixel patch) for developed classes (class codes 21, 22, 23, and 24); 7.12 acres (approximately 32 ETM+ pixel patch) for agricultural classes (class codes 81 and 82); and 2.67 acres (approximately 12 ETM+ pixel patch) for all other classes (class codes 11, 12, 31, 41, 42, 43, 52, 71, 90, and 95). The smart eliminate aggregation program subsumes pixels from the single pixel level to the mmu pixel patch using a queens algorithm at doubling intervals. The algorithm consults a weighting matrix to guide merging of cover types by similarity, resulting in a product that preserves land cover logic as much as possible. During the NLCD 2011 analysis and modeling process, inconsistencies in the NLCD 2001 and 2006 land cover products were corrected with the revised products, NLCD 2001 and NLCD 2006 Land Cover (2011 Editions), included as part of the NLCD 2011 product release. NLCD 2011 Land Cover (Final Product). Additional processing steps were implemented to create the final NLCD 2011 land cover map. Individual path/row change pixel results were assembled to form an intermediate seamless national product. This seamless change pixel map was reviewed and edited to remove regional inconsistencies. Refined NLCD 2011 change pixels were then combined with the re-issued NLCD 2006 Land Cover (2011 Edition), and the resulting image was smart-eliminated to a 5-pixel mmu. This final step eliminated single pixels and patches less than 5 pixels in extent that appeared as a result of combining the separate images. NLCD 2011 Change Pixels (Final Product). A comparison of the NLCD 2006 (2011 Edition) base and the NLCD 2011 Land Cover was necessary to extract a final version of the NLCD 2011 Change Pixels. In a model, pixels that were labeled with the same land cover class code were removed and only those pixels that did not agree in the two classifications were retained as final NLCD 2011 Change Pixels. NLCD 2006/2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness Change. The NLCD 2006 Percent Developed Imperviousness (2011 Edition) and the NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness were compared in a model to provide the user community with a layer that depicts imperviousness change between 2006 and 2011. Landsat data and ancillary data used for the land cover prediction - For a list of Landsat scene dates by path/row used in this project, please see: appendix3_nlcd2011_scene_list_by_path_row.txt Data Type of DEM composed of 1 band of Continuous Variable Type. Data Type of Slope composed of 1 band of Continuous Variable Type. Data Type of Aspect composed of 1 band of Categorical Variable Type. Data type of Position Index composed of 1 band of Continuous Variable Type. Data type of 3-ratio index composed of 3 bands of Continuous Variable Type.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Landsat ETM, Landsat TM, DEM, USGS/EROS
Process_Date: Unknown
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: USGS National Land Cover Database
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Process Step for NLCD 2011 (amended 2014): The release in 2014 of amended versions of land cover for 2001, 2006, and 2011 was made to correct for unintended differences between the impervious dataset and the four land cover developed classes (Open Space, Low Intensity, Medium Intensity, and High Intensity). NLCD developed classes are tied directly to the impervious product values. However, the land cover product Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU) is five pixels whereas the impervious product MMU is single pixel. This MMU difference creates problems when the impervious single pixel MMU product is directly crosswalked into the 5-pixel MMU land cover developed classes. The smoothing process, which generalizes the land cover product to a 5-pixel MMU, can create small areas which are no longer directly represented in the imperviousness product because they are artifacts of the smoothing. Since these changes are not real and not present in the impervious layer, the new version removes these artifacts and re-establishes the direct linkage between the imperviousness and land cover products for any developed area. Combined developed areas (all developed classes combined into a group) in the land cover product must still meet the 5-pixel MMU threshold; however, the four NLCD land cover individual developed classes within the group patch are now represented by a single pixel MMU to retain the direct linkage to the imperviousness product.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description: Data clipped to New York state boundary.
Process_Date: 20180425

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information

Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell
Row_Count: 16989
Column_Count: 22610

Spatial_Reference_Information

Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area
Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:
Standard_Parallel: 29.500000
Standard_Parallel: 45.500000
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -96.000000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 23.000000
False_Easting: 0.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 30.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 30.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Entity_and_Attribute_Information

Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: nlcd_2011_impervious_2011_edition_2014_10_10.img.vat
Entity_Type_Definition: NLCD Imperviousness Layer
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: National Land Cover Database 2011
Attributes:
Name Description Values
ObjectID Internal feature number Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Value Percent Imperviousness 0 to 100 percentage
Count A nominal integer value that designates the number of pixels that have each value in the file; histogram column in ERDAS Imagine raster attributes table Integer
Red Red color code for RGB slice by value for imperviousness image display purposes. The value is arbitrarily assigned by the display software package, unless defined by user. Standard user defined ramp for NLCD project is start color light gray, end color red. 0 to 100 CSS Color Value Percentage
Green Green color code for RGB slice by value for imperviousness image display purposes. The value is arbitrarily assigned by the display software package, unless defined by user. Standard user defined ramp for NLCD project is start color light gray, end color red. 0 to 100 CSS Color Value Percentage
Blue Blue color code for RGB slice by value for imperviousness image display purposes. The value is arbitrarily assigned by the display software package, unless defined by user. Standard user defined ramp for NLCD project is start color light gray, end color red. 0 to 100 CSS Color Value Percentage
Opacity A measure of how opaque, or solid, a color is displayed in a layer. 0 to 100 Percentage
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Imperviousness Attributes
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Attributes defined by USGS and ESRI.

Distribution_Information

Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Albert R. Mann Library
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: Cornell University
City: Ithaca
State_or_Province: New York
Postal_Code: 14853
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 607-255-5406
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mann-ref@cornell.edu
Distribution_Liability: Cornell University provides these geographic data "as is". Cornell University makes no guarantee or warranty concerning the accuracy of information contained in the geographic data. Cornell University further makes no warranty either expressed or implied, regarding the condition of the product or its fitness for any particular purpose. The burden for determining fitness for use lies entirely with the user. Although these files have been processed successfully on computers at Cornell University, no warranty is made by Cornell University regarding the use of these data on any other system, nor does the fact of distribution constitute or imply any such warranty.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GeoTIFF
Format_Information_Content: zipped geotiff
File_Decompression_Technique: zip
Transfer_Size: 15.80
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: metadata
Format_Information_Content: FGDC XML metadata
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: HTML metadata
Format_Information_Content: FGDC HTML metadata
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: OGC:WMS
Format_Information_Content: WMS, from GeoServer
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Fees: None

Distribution_Information

Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Customer Service Representative
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: USGS EROS
Address: 47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
State_or_Province: SD
Postal_Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 605/594-6151
Contact_TDD/TTY_Telephone: 605/594-6933
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 605/594-6589
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: custserv@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800 - 1600 CT, M - F (-6h CST/-5h CDT GMT)
Contact_Instructions: The USGS point of contact is for questions relating to the data display and download from this web site. Questions about the NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness (2011 Edition) can be directed to the NLCD 2011 land cover mapping team at USGS EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.
Resource_Description: Downloadable data
Distribution_Liability: Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USGS, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the USGS regarding the use of the data on any other system, nor does the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. Data may have been compiled from various outside sources. Spatial information may not meet National Map Accuracy Standards. This information may be updated without notification. The USGS shall not be liable for any activity involving these data, installation, fitness of the data for a particular purpose, its use, or analyses results.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ERDAS
Format_Version_Number: Imagine 9.3
Format_Specification: .img
Transfer_Size: 709
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: http://www.mrlc.gov
Access_Instructions: The URL http://www.mrlc.gov provides a download interface that allows for data downloads. The download page allows the customer to download a zipped file that can be saved on the customer's computer. The file can then be unzipped and imported into various user software applications.
Online_Computer_and_Operating_System: Not available for dissemination
Fees: None
Ordering_Instructions: Contact Customer Services
Turnaround: Variable
Custom_Order_Process: Contact Customer Services Representative
Technical_Prerequisites: ESRI ArcMap Suite and/or Arc/Info software, and supporting operating systems.

Metadata_Reference_Information

Metadata_Date: 20190604
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Albert R. Mann Library
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: Albert R. Mann Library
City: Ithaca
State_or_Province: New York
Postal_Code: 14853
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 607-255-5406
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mann-ref@cornell.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time